Abbot-Downing’s Concord Coaches

I have long had an interest in Abbot-Downing Concord Coaches, probably the most popular brand of stagecoach ever produced in the United Sates. Judging by the e-mail that I have received from a short mention in a previous article, it looks like many people are interested in these old stagecoaches. I thought I would write a bit about these important transportation methods in American history.

If you ever see one, you should realize that you are looking at history.

In the 1800s and very early 1900s, the Abbot-Downing Company of Concord, New Hampshire, built more than 3,000 of these stagecoaches and then sold them all over the United States. Properly called Abbot-Downing Coaches, a few were even shipped to New Zealand, Australia, and South Africa.

Lewis Downing started a carriage-building business in Concord, New Hampshire, on August 3, 1813. By 1826, feeling the need of an expert carriage maker, Downing engaged the services of J. Stephens Abbot, and the men entered into partnership in the next year.

Abbot-Downing became known the world over for its Concord Stagecoach, but the company actually manufactured over 40 different types of carriages and wagons at their wagon factory in Concord. The Concord Stagecoaches were built as solid as the Abbot-Downing Company’s reputation and became known as coaches that didn’t break down.

After twenty years in business together, Abbott and Downing went their separate ways in an amicable split. Downing continued to build Concord coaches, and the two companies merged again in 1865, when Lewis Downing, Jr., and J.S. and E.A. Abbott Company formed the Abbott-Downing Company. They continued to manufacture coaches, wagons, and carriages under that company’s name until 1919.

Most of the time, the Abbot-Downing Company employed about 300 people. All were men except for one: from 1865 to 1895 Marie F. Putnam stitched leather seats and trim for every stagecoach that rolled out of the Concord factory, including those purchased by Wells Fargo & Company. For the entire 30 years, she was the company’s only female employee.

Each coach was given a number by the Abbot-Downing factory, and each has its own story. The Concord Coaches had a reputation for being sturdy, roomy, and comfortable. Having seen several Concord Coaches, I have to say the mid-1800s definitions of “roomy” and “comfortable” were far different from today’s definitions.

These stagecoaches were used from eastern Maine to San Diego and were the coaches most of us visualize when we think of the stagecoaches in the Old West. Indeed, thousands of these stagecoaches were sold west of the Mississippi. Wells Fargo Bank still uses an Abbot-Downing Coach in its corporate logo and owns several restored coaches.

Buffalo Bill on his Abbot-Downing Concord Coach

Buffalo Bill used Concord Coaches in his Wild West Shows. Old western movies filmed in the 1930s or 1940s usually used authentic, old Concord Coaches in their scenes. In fact, you can watch some of the older westerns to see crashes in which the movie studios filmed these antique coaches running off cliffs and smashing into the canyons below. You won’t see that in modern westerns as the original coaches are now worth hundreds of thousands of dollars each!

If your ancestors have been in North America for more than 100 years, chances are that many of them rode in Concord Coaches. Sometimes the passengers both walked and rode, as described by the stagecoach fares in and around Lincoln, New Hampshire:

  • pulled by 6 horses
  • 1st class: $7.00 (rode all the way)
  • 2nd class: had to walk at bad places on the road
  • 3rd class: same as above, but also had to push at hills

Based upon the interest expressed in e-mail, I considered writing an article about Concord Coaches. I have a casual knowledge of the topic, having seen quite a few of the Abbot-Downing coaches in the past thirty years or so. However, as I began to research the topic, I found numerous web sites owned and written by true experts. I decided to refer you to the excellent articles already available.

If you are not familiar with these delightful remnants of Americana, I suggest that you look at the pictures on these web sites. Then try to imagine your ancestor riding for hours in these cramped, uncomfortable seats in a back and forth rocking motion as the stagecoaches lurched along over unpaved roads, bouncing in and out of wagon ruts, at speeds typically of 8 to 10 miles per hour. Not only was travel by stagecoach uncomfortable, it often was also unsanitary. Passengers were always advised to “spit on the leeward side of the coach.” A stagecoach passenger may have had to get out and walk in places, or perhaps even place a shoulder against a wheel on the steeper hills. It was an exhausting and usually dirty ride!

Start first with the pictures on the “Abbot-Downing Concord Coaches” pages at and on the “The Concord Coach Gallery” at

If you have never seen a Concord Coach, you need to find one! There is an excellent list of almost all the Concord Coaches that are on display at There are several on exhibit in New Hampshire, of course, but others can be seen in California, Pennsylvania, Maine, Vermont, New York, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Ohio, Colorado, Missouri, Arizona, and South Dakota. Again, visit one in person, and then visualize your ancestor’s travels for hours as the coach bounced along unpaved roads.

Here is a list of other web sites that describe the historic Concord Coaches:

The Concord Coach: and the many links at

Concord (New Hampshire) Historical Society:


Abbott-Downing Historical Society:

1891 Abbot Downing Concord Coach at the Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation:

Wells Fargo Company’s stagecoaches:

Tips for Stagecoach Travelers, 1877, from Wells Fargo (“Spit on the leeward side of the coach.”):

1849 L. Downing Concord Stagecoach in the collection of the Owls Head Transportation Museum, Owls Head, Maine:

Many of these stagecoaches carried the U.S. Mail so the National Postal Museum has a web page devoted to the Concord Coaches at

Abbot-Downing coaches in San Diego, California:

The story of coach #80, built in 1850, survived three fires (!) and is now on display at the Concord Group Insurance Company, in Concord, NH (I have seen this coach many times):

Stagecoaches in New Zealand:

If you find other web pages that describe the Abbot-Downing Concord Coaches, please post a comment at the end of this article at and let everyone know about them.


Beat walking


Your subscribers interested in the coaches should visit
Cobb & Co. was the largest stage-coach company in the Australian colonies founded by Americans at the height of the largest gold rush in history. One thing the article didn’t mention was the Australian coaches had teams of eight or more rather than six and ran longer distances between changes. Often along the country highways, you can still find abandoned staging houses (inns).


another wonderful museum is the National Coach Museum in Lisbon. Oldest in the collection is from the 16th C used by royalty to travel from Madrid to Lisbon, in a mere 65 days. At least there was a commode on board! This place is a huge history lesson and now I understand where some of the names of our vehicle styles (i.e. cabriolet) come from.


I wonder if there is a site that would detail the routes of the Concord Coach around Dodge Center, Minnesota. My 2xgreat grand mother was reported to have died when the coach overturned near Dodge Center, Minnesota. I think their intended route was from Dodge Center, north to Kenyon. Confusing to me is that the first town was “Concord” so I didn’t know if the newspaper report of the “Concord Coach” she took meant the coach to Concord or the brand of Concord Stage Coach. ?


Wonderful, as in I am full of wonder!!
I assume coaches were shipped with the unstated understanding “assembly required.”
Just as we can ride on vintage trains at museums, are stagecoach rides over authentic trails available today?


I thought I would see if there was an Abbot-Downing Concord Coach a little closer to home, and sure enough I found one at the Remington Carrage Museum in the town of Cardston, Alberta, Canada, about a 45 min drive from home. Their website is
I talked to the curator and he told me it is one of the earlier ones, green with gold scrolling. It was first used in Vermont, and several other places ending up in the Glen Bow museum in Calgary, before being transferred to the Remington Carrage Museum.
Enjoyed reading this piece of history


Great article and a home town connection for me. Many years ago, the barn that used to be attached to my colonial home was sold by the previous owners and relocated to the Hopkinton Fair Grounds in Hopkinton, NH. Several of the Abbott-Downing Concord Coaches are housed there and may be viewed during the Hopkinton State Fair.


Those coach’s were also sent to Australia and I have the history them there!! One was a passenger coach with a driver who could drive for hours to one stop and then on the way back to the office he would fall asleep and the horses continued on til they got home. My Uncle Frederick L. Moss wrote a history of the Concord Coaches in NH but mainly in Australia as one of the men who once worked as a driver was a Moss. He later owned a hotel in the Blue Mt. area of Australia, not far from where they were finding diamonds.

Dot Moss Smith


Your description of how uncomfortable the stagecoach ride must have been immediately reminded me of the movie “Stagecoach” (starring a very young John Wayne), which gave rise to the term “stagecoach plot.” (Dramas involving the interactions of a handful of people confined to a small space, such as a stagecoach, lifeboat, etc.) I don’t know if the Concord was the stagecoach in the Wayne movie, but it seems likely….I have an ancestor who was a teamster in Kansas and later (I think) in California, and have wondered whether he drove for Wells Fargo.


The Long Island Museum at Stony Brook, NY has several Abbot Downing coaches. They are beautiful, distinctive coaches.


Check out the little video at the Booth Western Art Museum what they have on display and show briefly in the film is likely an Abbott-Downing made coach.


In California, one of the old goldrush towns, Columbia, has been preserved. The whole town is a historical state park, located on State Hwy. 49, the Golden Chain Highway. In Columbia, you can go for a ride on a restored Wells-Fargo stagecoach. I’m not sure the length of the route, but it takes about 7 or 8 minutes to make the route and back to town. The ticket one purchases to take the ride, is a copy of one of the original tickets. When I took my niece and nephew, as children, to Columbia in 1982, I was really astounded to see that the ticket was my great-great grandfather’s ticket. What a wonderful find! He had signed his name on it. I recognized his signature from other documents. He had come to California for the goldrush, and was here 7 years. This ticket was for the first leg of his journey home to Ohio. It was from Columbia to Salt Lake City in October 1857. Four years later, he brought his whole family to California.

Like asks..”I have a date in early August 1923 as the last regular, commercial stagecoach journey in New Zealand, from Otira to Arthur’s Pass in the Southern Alps. Are there any later ones in other parts of the world?”
Thanks, David Verrall.


    —> Are there any later ones in other parts of the world?

    Yes. My father and older sister took a roundtrip on a stagecoach (probably a Concord Coach) around 1950 or 1952 in Maine, USA. It was used to transport passengers and small freight to and from a hotel that was several miles deep in the woods with a rudimentary dirt access road that was impassible for automobiles and buses after every heavy rain. I believe they said the stagecoach made 3 roundtrips per day. Admittedly, the stagecoach was used solely to transport passengers to and from one hotel. It was not used as a regular passenger run between cities.

    Most Concord Coaches now reside in museums and most are restored to pristine condition and never moved. (I have seen about 8 or 10 of them). However, the Wayside Inn, built in 1716 and located in Sudbury, Massachusetts, has a Concord Coach that is in “working condition,” not a museum showpiece. It always looks a little bit dirty with grease around the hubs of the wheels. In other words, it looks just like the typical working stagecoach of the mid to late 1800s. The inn brings it out of the barn and hooks up a team of horses for various parades and other special occasions. I have seen it several times (I live nearby).

    The Wayside Inn was owned for many years in the 1920s by Henry Ford and I believe he is the one who purchased the used Concord Coach for use at the Wayside Inn. The Wayside Inn is also well known for being the subject of Longfellow’s “Tales of a Wayside Inn” (see for the details).


Where is the coach serial number located on coach?


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