Converting My Personal Library to Digital

NOTE: This is an update to an article I published several years ago. I have changed hardware since then and have updated my procedures significantly. This updated article reflects those changes.

I keep my computers and genealogy material in a small room in our house. I am sure the folks who built the house intended this room to be a child’s bedroom, but there are no children in the house, so I have converted it into something I call “our office.” I bet many people reading this article have done the same with a spare room in their homes.

bookscanningI have several computers and a 32-inch wide monitor in this room, a high-speed fiber optic Internet connection, a wi-fi mesh router, two printers (inkjet and laser), two scanners, several external hard drives used for making backups, oversized hi-fi speakers connected to the computers, and various other pieces of computer hardware. Luckily, these are all rather small, and advancing technology results in smaller and smaller devices appearing every year as I replace older devices.  The newer devices are almost always smaller than the old ones. However, I have a huge space problem: books and magazines. They don’t seem to be getting any smaller. My older books still take up as much room today as they did years ago.

“My office” has two bookcases that are each six feet tall and four feet wide, along with two smaller bookcases and a four-drawer filing cabinet. Pam and I share this “office,” so we have two desks, each laden with computers and printers. We squeeze a lot into a ten-foot-by-twelve-foot room.

I don’t want to count how many books I have purchased over the years, but I am sure it must be several hundred volumes. I don’t want to even think about the bottom-line price. I only have space in my four bookcases to store a tiny fraction of them; the rest are stored in boxes in the basement. Out-of-sight books are books that I rarely use. “Out of sight, out of mind.” I probably wasted my money by purchasing all those books as I rarely use most of them. I may have looked at them once, but I rarely go back to them again and again.

While four bookcases sounds like a lot of storage space, I filled them all years ago with books, magazines, software boxes, and stacks of CD-ROM disks. I don’t have room for any new purchases unless I first remove some of the items I already have and move them to boxes in the basement. Nowadays, I have more books and magazines in the basement than I do in the office.

My newly-purchased books and all the genealogy magazines I receive used to end up being stacked on the floor, on my desk, and in most any other nook or cranny I can find. The place was out of control, and I realized that I needed to find a solution. “I used to have a desk, and I am certain that it is still here… someplace. I think I saw it last year.”


In the past few years, I have learned a few lessons. Since there is no space left for storage, I now prefer to obtain all new magazines in electronic format. Not only are they easier to store, but they are also easier to search.

I might want to look something up in the future. Of course, my computer can find words inside electronic files much faster than my fingers and eyeballs can find anything in the printed pages of hundreds of magazines. Many times I have said to myself, “I read an article about that a few years ago. Now, where was that article?” A search on a hard drive will find the information within seconds, but a manual search of books stored in boxes in the basement is rarely successful. Depending on the file format used, I can often find specific words or phrases inside a few thousand files within seconds. Try doing that with printed books!

However, those magazines are the smaller problem. My biggest problem is books, hundreds of them. I cannot afford to go back and repurchase all of the books again in electronic format. What should I do?

I mulled that question over for quite a while before I realized that there were only two possible solutions:

1. Get a larger house


2. Digitize the existing books and all future acquisitions, then get rid of the printed material

I cannot afford the first solution, so I went with the only option left: digitize the existing books and all future acquisitions. The decision became easier when I purchased a high-speed sheet feed scanner.

I am now in the slow and tedious process of cutting apart every book and magazine that I own and scanning every one of them. I am performing this task on a “time available” basis. I try to scan 50 or more pages a day, but I must admit that I haven’t been able to do that every day. In the past year, I have only managed to digitize about twenty books and maybe 100 old magazines. At the rate I am going, the project will take many years to accomplish. However, I feel that I have no choice.

I expect to retire in a few years, and I don’t want to think about “downsizing” by moving into smaller living quarters. If I don’t start solving this problem now, I will face a far larger problem within a very few years.

A few years ago, I moved into a Winnebago motor home full time and lived there for two years. During that time, I learned a lot about downsizing!

I later sold the motor home and purchased a second home in the sunbelt where I can spend my winters without shoveling snow or worrying about falling on ice and breaking a hip, such as a northern friend of mine did last winter. Life is great in the sunshine!

However, this move creates two new problems. The first is a repeat of the problem I mentioned earlier: my winter home is small, even smaller than the home up north, and I don’t have room for hundreds of books and magazines. The second problem is unique to the sunshine states: there is no basement! Where am I going to save all those printed books?

The biggest problem of all, however, still remains the same:  there is no way I can duplicate everything on paper and keep duplicate paper copies in each home!

The primary reasons that I have not yet been able to scan many books and magazines are: (1.) time required and (2.) the speed of the scanner. The first scanner I purchased is a great device, but it was never designed for speed. It can only scan one side of one page at a time. I need something faster and something that has an input tray that will accept a stack of pages and will scan both sides of each page automatically.

Fujitsu sheet feed scanner

To address this problem, I went out and purchased a sheet-feed scanner. I can insert up to 50 pages at a time, push a button, and relax for about a minute while the scanner digitizes both sides of every page and then deposits all the pages in an output tray. I check the electronic scan to make sure it worked properly, and then I throw away the paper.


Yes, I throw away the paper. As a long-time genealogist, I am used to saving every scrap of paper. However, I eventually realized that this was no longer necessary when I had a digital duplicate copy of everything, a copy that is easier to search than paper. Once digitized, almost all the original pages go into the trash bin or into the shredder.


I believe there are no copyright issues involved, even with the newly-published material. I am making copies solely for my personal use and have no plans to ever share any of the newer books and magazines in digital format with anyone else. Current U.S. copyright laws allow for making copies for one’s personal use, and I think most other countries have similar provisions. I can legally share electronic copies of out-of-copyright printed books, but anything that still falls under copyright laws will always be used solely for my own personal use.

The Process

I must admit that I had emotional difficulties when I first cut the pages out of some of my “valuable” books. That is, those that I felt were valuable, regardless of their actual replacement cost. Cutting pages out of the New England Historic and Genealogical Register or out of that family surname book that I paid $150 to purchase years ago is a gut-wrenching experience. Even tougher is the prospect of throwing the pages out in the trash after they have been scanned. However, I really feel I have no choice: I cannot afford the storage space. The emotions subside after cutting apart the first three or four books.

One trick that I learned recently concerns the many out-of-copyright, reprinted books that I own. Before cutting them apart, I first look on Google Books and at the Internet Archive and then search on Google to see if someone else has already scanned a copy of the same book and made it available online. If so, I simply go to the appropriate web site, find the electronic version of the book, click on DOWNLOAD PDF, and save the entire book to my hard drive. Then I simply throw away the printed book that I have. If someone else has already scanned the book, there is no need for me to duplicate the other person’s effort!

Local libraries don’t seem to want these cut-apart books; they already have space problems of their own and are already throwing away lesser-used books by the hundreds. The last thing they want is more old books, especially if the book is already available in electronic format. Major genealogy libraries typically don’t want the books either as they usually already have copies of the books that I am digitizing.

So far, about half of the out-of-copyright books that I have checked have been found in The Internet Archive, in Google Books, or in at least one of the other online web sites specializing in out-of-copyright books.


There are a handful of books that I will never cut apart: the family Bible printed in 1828, the signed autobiography of Lorenzo Dow published in 1838, my high school yearbook, and a very few others. However, the remainder of them are being sliced. I don’t hesitate to slice reprinted books or any magazines. I have an Exacto knife for the purpose. I plan to purchase a paper cutter some day but my present method with an Exacto knife seems sufficient for now.

I refer to this process as “meeting the guillotine.”


I have converted most of my magazine subscriptions to e-subscriptions. Don’t send me paper! For the few subscriptions that are not available in electronic format, I now read the printed magazine for the first time WHILE I am cutting the pages apart and feeding them into the scanner.

Which scanner should I use?

For a while I thought about purchasing a bunch of scanners and evaluating them in a side-by-side comparison article in this newsletter. I soon gave up on that idea because (1.) there are a lot of scanners available, and comparing would be both expensive and time consuming. Also, (2.) it’s already been done!

If you are thinking about purchasing a new scanner, I would suggest you first look at The Best Scanners of 2020 in the PCMag web site at It is a great comparison of most of the leading scanners of today and is updated annually.


Obviously, I also have to make sure these documents are well preserved in their digital format. Can you imagine the emotions if I spent hundreds of hours scanning several hundred old books and then threw the originals away, only to have a hard drive crash?

In fact, I keep a MINIMUM of four copies: the original copy is kept in the Macintosh’s hard drive; a backup copy is kept on a 12-terabyte external hard drive that plugs into the Mac’s USB connector; a second backup copy is kept on various USB “jump drives” and a third backup copy is kept on an off-site backup service “in the cloud” on the Internet that automatically backs up any new files or newly-changed files from the Mac’s hard drive once every fifteen minutes.

Right now I am also keeping a fourth copy on my laptop computer and a fifth copy on another computer in my office by using a middle-of-the-night process that automatically copies files across my in-home network.

Every spring and every fall, before moving to my other seasonal home, I also make backups of everything to another USB hard drive and take the new backups to the computers at the other location. I guess that is a sixth copy. I can even carry my entire digital library in a rather small briefcase, backpack, or gym bag. I no longer need the multiple bookshelves or the cardboard boxes of books in the basement.

no_uhaulIf I was to carry my entire library when it was all in print, I would be renting a large U-Haul van twice a year!

I am not sure if I will continue with the fourth, fifth, and sixth copies, however. If those disk drives fill up, I might reconsider the process. A “belt and suspenders” approach is a good idea, but I am not sure that I need three belts and three sets of suspenders! I make fourth, fifth, and sixth copies right now simply because I happen to have the disk space available.

flashdriveThere is an unexpected side benefit: the jump drives (also called flash drives) slip into a pocket and are barely noticeable there. When I go to genealogy conferences, to a library, to a courthouse, or to a cousin’s home, I am carrying my digitized library with me. My present 265-gigabyte jump drive has sufficient space to store thousands of books and magazines. Someday I will have my entire library with me in my pocket, although that might require two or three jump drives at today’s technology. On the other hand, jump drive capacity is likely to continue growing faster than I can scan old books. If I want to check a book or magazine that is in my home library, I can pull a jump drive out of my pocket, insert it into my laptop or a friend’s computer or even at a computer at a public library, and check on it quickly. In contrast, can you imagine carrying around an entire library of printed books and magazines?

If copyright laws allow, I can even provide legal copies of an entire book to a friend by simply clicking and dragging a file onto my friend’s computer or by sending it to him or her in e-mail. I can legally do so with the out-of-copyright books that I own.

Full disclosure: This is still a “work in progress.” While I have already digitized a lot of books and magazines, I am probably only about 50% complete. Each summer, when I am living in the “house up north,” I digitize more books that are still in boxes or in the bookshelves. I plan to never take boxes of books or multiple bookcases to the home in the sun belt. It is so much easier to read the books on a laptop or a tablet computer!


Converting one’s library to all digital files can be a gut-wrenching task. Admittedly, slicing “valuable” books is an emotional challenge. However, once the available physical storage space is used up, one is left with few choices.

How do you store your collection of books and magazines? Do you have them all neatly stored and organized? Can you find what you want quickly? How about future purchases? Where will you put those? Can you carry all of them with you on a trip? And what if you move? There’s a saying that “you can’t take it with you,” but you might be able to keep your printed resources for as long as you need them – and make them much more useful – if you convert them to digital files.


I’m curious: are you saving them as pdf’s? Or are you able to OCR and convert to text? So in otherwords, what file type are you saving them as? Also, are you using a specific program to digitize, or just the app that comes with the scanner?


    —> I’m curious: are you saving them as pdf’s?

    Mostly. Once in a while there may be a reason to save them as a JPG image or to save them twice: once as a PDF and one as an image. That happens occasionally on smaller “booklets” of only a few pages or sometimes I might want to save only one or two articles from a magazine. However, probably 99% of the books are saved as PDF files.

    For multi-page items scanned with the sheet fed scanner, I normally use Evernote. For some of the single-page items that are “scanned” with my cell phone’s camera (such as when I am in a library or an archive), I normally use the Android app CamScanner.


    Susan, I would recommend FileShadow ( if you are interested in OCR for pdf files and their automatic tagging of jpg and other file types. They also allow you to organize your files into collections. These collections can then be published or shared with anyone or kept private as desired. I understand they just added direct integration with Fujitsu scanners as well.


If you have a physical document, you can scan and share a paragraph, a page, a photo or the whole.. If you source an out-of-print publication from, say, the Internet Archive, can you share in the same way?


    —> If you source an out-of-print publication from, say, the Internet Archive, can you share in the same way?

    Yes. I normally download the publication from the Internet Archive (which is easy to do) and then use a photo editor or a PDF editor to extract just piece I am interested in, such as one article or one page. Then it is treated the same ways as any other image or PDF file and may be saved or shared shared however you wish.


“paper into the trash” !!
Surely you recycle paper in the US. don’t you?


About 18 months ago I purchased a Czar scanner. It is great for scanning documents , even books (2 pages at a time). Several improvements have been made since then. Plus the scanned copies can be saved as a Word document, PDF, etc. For more info, the web site is I am scanning a 400 page book written in German so that I can machine translate into English. I highly recommend it (I have no financial interest).


Step one, if the picture of the bookcase is one in your office, is to remove the health and cookbooks to an area more conducive to using in the kitchen or where you can pick one and browse through it – not something I would be doing in my office area. Might free up some space for the reference genealogy books;-))) Organization is key to small areas.


    —> conducive to using in the kitchen or where you can pick one and browse through it

    I disagree. The goal is not to sort and organize the printed books. Instead, the goal is to digitize all the books so that they can be easily accessible wherever I am: in my summer residence, in my winter residence, when at a relative’s house, when in a hotel room, anywhere. If I try to organize printed books by location and usage, I will never have the book(s) available when I am in a different location. A (printed) cookbook stored in the kitchen of my summer residence will be useless when I am at the winter residence.

    Since all the digitized books are fully backed up in multiple places and all of them are available in the cloud, I can access them from anyplace.


Over the last month I’ve been scanning work documents as far back as the 1980s. These are numerous copyright registrations, assignments, and correspondence. My thousands of client reports were already saved on my hard drive as word files. The new scans are pdf files that I move into groups on Evernote, a wonderful organizational app that also backs up to the web (and accessible from my other computers, tablets, and iPhones. I went through 5 file drawers since beginning this project. The tossed paper was so heavy in the recycle bin that the local pickup initially could not lift it to the truck–I had to remove some and paper bag it.


I recently recycled over a thousand paperbacks, mostly fiction, because I could no longer read the print and had run out of room. I scanned the covers as a record. Sad.

The Canon LIDE scanner, noted in the PC Magazine article you cite, works well for me. Very pleased with it. No sheet feeder so that part is slow.

I am looking for a larger flatbed, at least 11×17. Any recommendations?



When you say that you use Evernote for short documents, how is that done?


    —> When you say that you use Evernote for short documents, how is that done?

    In my case, that means using the Evernote software that was included with the Evernote Scanner that I purchased.

    The scanner has a label on the front that says “Evernote” but it obviously was manufactured by Fujitsu. I believe the same functionality is built into Evernote even if you do not purchase the scanner but I have no easy way to test that. I purchased the scanner from Evernote several years ago. I believe you can purchase an identical scanner today from Fujitsu and then download and install the free Evernote software. At least, that is how it works on a Mac. I hate the word “assume” but will have to say that I assume it works the same on Windows.


    Thanks. Very helpful.


Thanks for your scanning and scanner suggestions. I love being able to download out-of-copyright books and recent issues of journals but hit a wall with .pdf downloads (sometimes the only option) that don’t seem to permit marking up with sticky notes, highlighting, text boxes, etc., which I find very useful. Am I missing a technique for doing that?


    —> I love being able to download out-of-copyright books and recent issues of journals but hit a wall with .pdf downloads (sometimes the only option) that don’t seem to permit marking up with sticky notes, highlighting, text boxes, etc., which I find very useful. Am I missing a technique for doing that?

    Easy. Scan the book or document in the normal way. It will be saved on your hard drive. Then use any other software from some other company to add sticky notes, to change the PDF file, to add highlighting, text boxes, and more. Scanning the book or document and saving it on your hard drive(s) is only the first step in a multi-step process. There are all sorts of things you can do to the PDF file once it is stored on your hard drive(s).

    There are dozens of such PDF editing programs available for Macintosh and for Windows. Some of them are available free of charge but the more sophisticated products probably will cost a modest amount of money.


I have been considering purchasing the Iris Scan desktop camera scanner to scan my books. It isn’t necessary to cut the book apart execute the scan. It can scan two pages at one time in 3 seconds. It scans PDF and can output jpg, ePub, or pdf. Here is a link to the device. It is portable and includes OCR software. Currently (4/16/20) on sale for $109.


Sickeningly wasteful and barbaric, as well as foolish and short-sighted. Please find a less destructive way to do this!


Dick, thanks for your very useful article.
In addition to Google Books and Internet Archive, readers should also use the online FamilySearch Digital Library (>Search>Books) where over 400,000 family history books and other genealogical and historical publications have been digitized from the Family History Library and major partner libraries and made available at no cost. A new search and navigation interface is available to search for personal names, localities, and other terms. I have written two articles explaining how to use this collection: “FamilySearch Digital Library, Ohio Genealogy News 50 (Spring 2019): 14; and “Accessing Books at the FamilySearch Digital Library, Ohio Genealogy News 50 (Summer 2019): 12–13. Readers will also want to use HathiTrust Digital Library ( to search for digitized books of interest.


Oh so painful to read – cutting up and disposing of my FRIENDS –
“I never feel lonely if I’ve got a book-they’re like old friends. Even if you’re not reading them over and over again, you know they are there. And they’re part of your history. They sort of tell a story about your journey through life.” Emilia Fox


This is what I did with all my cookbooks (I had about a thousand, at least). I went through them and marked (with a sticky note) the recipes I wanted to keep and took scans of those pages and the front of the cookbook to keep it all together. I then turned them into the book store that takes used books and got money back (not much, but some) or you could donate them to the library for their book sale to let them make money. With magazines, I keep articles of interest and throw rest away after reading then each article goes into a page protector (per article, not page) and they are grouped together in large binders which takes up less space that what I had for magazines – then someday, those will get scanned. Hope this helps someone.


    Congratulations! This makes the most sense both for you as well as others who will also get to enjoy those cookbooks. I’ve done both in the past but it was “BC” (before computers) so no scanned pages of ones I gave away;-(


Why, when you need to access or read the digitised item, do you Not use either, a NAS drive or store them online. Then, you read, or whatever where ever you have online access,


    —> Why, when you need to access or read the digitised item, do you Not use either, a NAS drive or store them online.

    Absolutely except I never create only one backup copy. I back up everything to an external hard drive plugged into the back of my computer PLUS to two different online file storage services in the cloud PLUS I sometimes make additional copies of certain files to various flash drives. I have a flash drive that contains all the files in MyDocuments folder, two different flash drives that contain backup copies of my genealogy data, plus other flash drives containing other info. I never place all my eggs in only one basket.


    Quite so. Whilst, I have your attention, so to speak. Which means of keeping your family trees, records do you use, or recommend. I have trees on Ancestry, Findmypast, My Heritage, but like the format of Legacy Family tree software.


    What do I recommend?

    Two words: “multiple means.”

    I hope that MyHeritage, FamilySearch, Ancestry, Findmypast,, and all the other webs sites will last forever and will keep my information online and visible to the public forever. However, in this ever-changing world of high technology, I doubt that will happen.

    Instead of expecting other organizations to preserve my data for me, I make multiple backup copies of everything and store the copies in multiple places. I have written about that often in this newsletter so I won’t repeat everything here. Making my own copies gives me confidence that my information will remain available to me FOR AS LONG AS I LIVE.

    There is a bigger, long-time issue however: How do I make sure the information is available to other family members after my demise? I don’t have a single, simple answer but I can describe what I do: I make sure that as many of my relatives as possible have copies.

    I doubt if all my relatives will care about the family’s family tree. Some of them undoubtedly will throw the information away. What I am betting, however, is that quite a few of my relatives will keep the information and preserve it. I suspect one or two or maybe more relatives will even copy it and make everything publicly available on whatever technology replaces the World Wide Web in the future. They may simply copy what I supplied or (hopefully) they will copy it to newer and better formats and even update and improve the information and source citations I offered.


    Many thanks for your reply.


Great article. I first embarked on genealogical pursuits pre internet and have newspaper articles, letters and a family time inherited from my Great Uncle. Several years ago, I lost some precious data- my grandmother’s school records which had been emailed to me by a very kind archivist from her high school in New Zealand.
I am currently developing a cloud based solution using Google Drive. Still very much in its infancy but showing promise in terms of storage and cross platform access i.e. android, Windows pc and Mac, and also sharing documents via links to the Google drive instead of emailing them.


I’ve been digitizing my entire 400ish book library for the last couple weeks. Buddy has a table saw, I bought him a couple 60-tooth carbide blades to saw the binding off my books, and his. I use an Epson FF-680W I bought for the purpose, and was lucky enough to get it as a “refurb” from Amazon for $400. Otherwise it’s about twice that.
Scanner is pretty fast, about 1 page every 2.5 seconds – 5 seconds to process both sides of a sheet. Got 31 smaller books scanned today. BIgger books take a lot longer.
Need to have Adobe Acrobat Pro DC, because it is useful for post-processing the PDFs, such as turning a page sideways or combining PDFs.
Combining PDFs is necessary for the larger books, as you can’t just scan a 1000 page book and tehn spit it out as a PDF. The software isn’t that smart. So, I make a PDF with the 1st 400 – 500 pages, then another with the next 400-500 pages, and so on. Then, later, I can go ahead and combine the smaller PDFs in to one regular size document.
The Epson software with the scanner has an excellent OCR function which is very accurate. It can take a while on bigger books, tho.


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